SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM OF SENS (late 12th–early 13th century), one of the great French tosafists, known also as Ha-Sar ("the prince") of Sens. He was the brother of isaac b. abraham (Riẓba) and grandson of samson b. joseph of Falaise, brother-in-law of jacob tam . In his youth he studied under Tam and Ḥayyim ha-Kohen , but his main teacher was isaac b. samuel of Dampierre. His authority was widely recognized, even beyond France. During the first maimonidean controversy (1202), the French rabbis were requested to express their views in the dispute between meir abulafia , who attacked Maimonides, and aaron b. meshullam of Lunel, who defended him. Samson replied on behalf of the French rabbis in lengthy letters. He sharply criticized the Mishneh Torah, describing its defects, and even advising against its study. He particularly opposed Maimonides' view on resurrection. On the other hand, he expressed profound esteem for Maimonides himself, concluding "that the gates of understanding were opened to him, enabling him to see wonders in the divine Torah." However, his attitude did not satisfy the opponents of Maimonides. On a much later occasion (1235), Abraham, the son of Maimonides, referring to an unconfirmed report that Samson had disagreed with his father, vigorously denied that he had excommunicated him. The extent of Samson's ties with Germany is not known. However, his works circulated and were accepted there. Isaac of Vienna (see Or Zaru'a, 3 (1887); BK, no. 436) writes of him, "he was unique in his knowledge and his wisdom." He composed tosafot, known as Tosafot Sens, on almost the whole of the Talmud (see Urbach, Tosafot, p. 232ff. for detailed list). Some of those printed in the standard editions of the Talmud are actually from his pen (RH, Suk., Men., Bek.), while others are the work of his disciples and their disciples (Shab., Er., Yev., Ket., BM, BB). Other collections of tosafot, such as those of Touques and of Asher b. Jehiel, are based on them. His tosafot on Pesaḥim were published (1956), others are still in manuscript. His commentary on the mishnayot of Zera'im (excluding Berakhot) and Tohorot (excluding Niddah) is the most important commentary on these orders, and it was made use of by all later commentators, such as Asher b. Jehiel and Obadiah of Bertinoro. He is known to have written a commentary on Shekalim, Eduyyot, and Kinnim, which has not come down to us. The one printed as Tosafot Sens on Eduyyot, Makkot, and Sotah, as well as the commentary on the Sifra, have been erroneously attributed to him. Jacob of Courson, one of his disciples, collected his responsa and halakhic decisions in a work which has not been preserved. Urbach gives a list of his responsa which are scattered among the works of the halakhic authorities (Tosafot, 264). At the beginning of the 13th century Samson migrated to Ereẓ Israel (Graetz' view that he went with the 300 French rabbis in 1211 is unsupported), and he is therefore sometimes referred to as "of Ereẓ Israel" or "of Jerusalem." Maimonides' son Abraham states that they did not meet because Samson did not pass through Egypt; he would therefore appear to have sailed directly to Acre. He lived in Jerusalem and Acre, where he died, and was buried at the foot of Mount Carmel.   Urbach gives the date of his death as before 1216, but others date it c. 1230. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Frankel, Mishnah, 352–5; Gross, Gal Jud, 165, 168f.; 622; V. Aptowitzer, Mavo le-Sefer Ravyah (1938), 24f.; 418–20; Urbach, Tosafot, 226–65, 534; S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 128f. (Shlomoh Zalman Havlin)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Samson ben Abraham of Sens — Samson ben Abraham (c. 1150 c. 1230), also known as the Rash of Sens (an acronym of his name) or the Prince of Sens , was one of the leading French Tosafists in the second half of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th centuries. He was the most… …   Wikipedia

  • Samson ben Abraham of Sens — (fl. 12th 13th cent.)    French tosaphist. During the first Maimonidean controversy (1202), he spoke on behalf of the French rabbis. He opposed the teachings of Maimonides Mishneh Torah and attacked his view of resur rection. The founder of the… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Samson ben Joseph de Falaise — est un tossafiste du XIIe siècle. Il est l auteur de tossefot sur les traités talmudiques Shabbat, Erouvin, Yebamot, et Ḥoullin. Il a aussi écrit des décisions rituelles citées par Joel ha Levi sous le titre Pessaḳim. L une de ces décisions …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE — (12th century), French tosafist. Samson was an older contemporary of Jacob Tam, with whom he corresponded and who addressed him with exceptional humility (see Sefer ha Yashar, responsa, nos. 3 and 4). He may have been a pupil of Rashi. His sister …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BERTINORO, OBADIAH BEN ABRAHAM YARE — (Di or Of; c. 1450–before 1516), Italian rabbi and Mishnah commentator. The name Yare is an acrostic of the Hebrew יְהִי רְצוּי אֶחָיו(Yehi Reẓui Eḥav; Let him be the favored of his brethren ; Deut. 33:24). Little is known of his family, which… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM — (Riẓba; 12th century), French tosafist. Isaac is variously referred to as Riẓba, Riba, and Isaac ha Baḥur of Dampierre. He was the pupil of Isaac b. Samuel ha Zaken and also studied for a time under jacob tam . He was not a pupil of judah b.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHKENAZI, BEZALEL BEN ABRAHAM — (c. 1520–1591/94), talmudist and halakhic authority. Ashkenazi was born in Jerusalem or in Safed, where he studied in his youth under Israel di curiel . About 1540 he went to Egypt where he studied in Cairo under david b. solomon ibn Abi Zimra.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Simson von Sens — (Samson ben Abraham von Sens; * um 1150; † um 1230 in Akkon) war ein französisch jüdischer Gelehrter und Tosafist des 12./13. Jahrhunderts. Er verfasste u. a. einen Kommentar zu Mischna Zeraim und Toharot (in den meisten Talmudausgaben enthalten) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF DAMPIERRE — (usually referred to by the initial letters of his name as Ri (initials of R abbi I saac) or Ri the Elder, or Ri of Dampierre, d. c. 1185), one of the most important of the tosafists and leading authority of Franco German Jewry in the second half …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHER BEN JEHIEL — (also known as Asheri and Rosh; c. 1250–1327), talmudist. His first teachers were his father, one of the Ḥasidei Ashkenaz, who was a follower of , and his elder brother. He spent some time in France, apparently in Troyes, and then lived in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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